الفاعل هو الشخص او الشىء الذى يقوم بفعل الحدث فى المبنى للمعلوم
John wrote a letter yesterday.
اما فى المبنى للمجهول الحدث يعود على الفاعل
The letter was written yesterday.

التكوين 

يتكون المبنى للمجهول من الفعل to be + التصريف الثالث للفعل
نلاحظ ان الافعال المتعدية فقط هى التى تاخذ مفعول يمكن ان تتحول الى مبنى للمجهول 
The letter was written. .
هنا write هو فعل متعدى ولذلك يمكن ان يتحول الى مبنى للمجهول
اما بالنسبة للفعل arrive فهو فعل غير متعدى اى لا يأ خذ مفعول به
ولذلك لا يمكن ان نقول مثلا The plane was arrived 
اى لا يمكن ان يتحول الى المبنى للمجهول 

كما ذكرنا من قبل يتكون المبنى للمجهول من الفعل to be + التصريف الثالث للفعل

اذا كان الفعل فى المضارع البسيط فنضع الفعل to be فى المضارع + التصريف الثالث للفعل 
He writes (active)------ it is written (passive)

اذا كان الفعل فى الماضى فنضع الفعل to be فى الماضى + التصريف الثالث للفعل
He wrote (active)------ it was written (passive)

اذا كان الفعل فى الماضى / المضارع التام نضع has/had been + التصريف الثالث للفعل
He has written ------ had been written

اذا كان الفعل فى المضارع المستمر فنضع الفعل being + to be + التصريف الثالث للفعل
Mr. Adam is teaching this class----- this class is being taught by Mr. Adam

اذا كان الفعل في الماضي المستمر نضع الفعل to be فى الماضى + being + التصريف الثالث للفعل
Mr.Adam was teaching this class.(active)
This class was being taught by Mr Adam.(passive)


تحويل الافعال الناقصة الى المبني للمجهول 


نضع الفعل الناقص + have been / be + التصريف الثالث للفعل
Will ( He will write (active) ------ it will be written
May ( He may write (active)------ it may be written
May have (He may have written a letter (active) ---- it may have been written

 استخدامات المبني للمجهول 


نستخدم المبنى للمجهول عندما لا نريد ان نتحمل مسئولية الشىء
The matter will be tackled soon.
نلاحظ اننا لا نعرف ولا نريد ان نذكر من قام بفعل الحدث

عندما تريد ان تركز على الحدث نفسه وليس الشخصى او الشىء الذى قام بفعل الحدث
The pyramids were built in ancient times.
عندما نريد ان نتجنب التباس الفاعل مثل they-someone-one
the form has to be signed
استخدام By القائم بفعل الحدث 
نستخدم By فقط عندما نحتاج لذكر من الذى قام بفعل الحدث
The windows were broken yesterday.
فى ذلك المثال لا نريد ان نعلم من قام بفعل الحدث
The windows were broken by a slate that fell off the roof.
فى ذلك المثال نريد ان نعطى معلومه غالبا نستخدم by + صيغة المبنى للمجهول للافعال الاتية Build- destroy – damage- design invent – make- discover للتعريف من هو او ما هو الشىء المسئول عن ذلك الحدث
Who build the pyramids? The pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians.
استخدام صيغة المبنى للمجهول مع افعال القول والاعتقاد عندما نحتاج الى التاكد من الحقائق التى لدينا
He was a spy in the 1973 war.
اذا لم نكون متاكدين من الحقائق التى لدينا فيمكن ان نعبر عن الحذر والاحتراس بقول
It is said (that) he was a spy in the 1973 war.


يمكن التعبير عن الحذر بثلاثة طرق :

  1. It ( صيغة المبنى للمجهول + clause – that ) مع الافعال الاتية Agree – believe – consider – decide – hope – know – say
    It is said that there is a plenty of oil of four own coast.
  2. تستخدم there + صيغة المبنى للمجهول + فعل to be مع الافعال الاتية Believe – fear – know- report – say- suppose- think-allege

  3. تستخدم الفاعل + صيغة المبنى للمجهول + to + المصدر الافعال الاتية allege- believe- consider – know- say
    Nicole is said to know everything about spiders.



استخدام المسبب

نستخدم المسبب فى ازمنة مختلفة ومع الافعال الناقصة ويتكون من have + الاسم او ضمير المفعول + التصريف الثالث للفعل
I am having my hair cut.
I have had a house built.
I can't have a house built
بعض الاحيان نستخدم get بدلا من have فى حالة المسبب لكى نقول شىء حتمى وضرورى

Have that house built.
Get that house built.
Get فى ذلك المثال توضح ان المسبب حتمى وضرورى

تستخدم المسبب لنؤكد اننا قد جعلنا شخصا ما يقوم بمهمه من اجلنا
I am having my hair cut.
I have had my car repaired.


امثلة :


Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)
The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)

Sue changed the flat tire. (active)
The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)

We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)
A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)

I ran the obstacle course in record time. (active)
The obstacle course was run by me in record time. (passive)

The crew paved the entire stretch of highway. (active)
The entire stretch of highway was paved by the crew. (passive)

Mom read the novel in one day. (active)
The novel was read by Mom in one day. (passive)

The critic wrote a scathing review. (active)
A scathing review was written by the critic. (passive)

I will clean the house every Saturday. (active)
The house will be cleaned by me every Saturday. (passive)

The staff is required to watch a safety video every year. (active)
A safety video will be watched by the staff every year. (passive)

She faxed her application for a new job. (active)
The application for a new job was faxed by her. (passive)

Tom painted the entire house. (active)
The entire house was painted by Tom. (passive)

The teacher always answers the students’ questions. (active)
The students’ questions are always answered by the teacher. (passive)

The choir really enjoys that piece. (active)
That piece is really enjoyed by the choir. (passive)

Who taught you to ski? (active)
By whom were you taught to ski? (passive)

The forest fire destroyed the whole suburb. (active)
The whole suburb was destroyed by the forest fire. (passive)

The two kings are signing the treaty. (active)
The treaty is being signed by the two kings. (passive)

The cleaning crew vacuums and dusts the office every night. (active)
Every night the office is vacuumed and dusted by the cleaning crew. (passive)

Larry generously donated money to the homeless shelter. (active)
Money was generously donated to the homeless shelter by Larry. (passive)

No one responded to my sales ad. (active)
My sales ad was not responded to by anyone. (passive)


The wedding planner is making all the reservations. (active)
All the reservations will be made by the wedding planner. (passive)

Susan will bake two dozen cupcakes for the bake sale. (active)
For the bake sale, two dozen cookies will be baked by Susan. (passive)

The science class viewed the comet. (active)
The comet was viewed by the science class. (passive)

Who ate the last cookie? (active)
The last cookie was eaten by whom? (passive)

Alex posted the video on Facebook. (active)
The video was posted on Facebook by Alex. (passive)

The director will give you instructions. (active)
Instructions will be given to you by the director. (passive)

Thousands of tourists view the Grand Canyon every year. (active)
The Grand Canyon is viewed by thousands of tourists every year. (passive)

The homeowners remodeled the house to help it sell. (active)
The house was remodeled by the homeowners to help it sell. (passive)

The team will celebrate their victory tomorrow. (active)
The victory will be celebrated by the team tomorrow. (passive)

The saltwater eventually corroded the metal beams. (active)
The metal beams were eventually corroded by the saltwater. (passive)

The kangaroo carried her baby in her pouch. (active)
The baby was carried by the kangaroo in her pouch. (passive)

Some people raise sugar cane in Hawaii. (active)
Sugar cane is raised by some people in Hawaii. (passive)






تمرين :

قم بتحويل الجمل التالية الة المبني للمجهول :

الجمل مكتوبة في المبني للمعلوم، حولها الى المبني للمجهول. 


1. I have finished the job.
2. They built this house in 1990.
3. He has bought a new car.
4. I wrote a letter.
5. They sent the parcel on Monday.
6. The police caught the thief yesterday.
7. She baked a cake.
8. I read a book.
9. She gave the beggar a five rupee coin.
10. The teacher praised the boy.
11. Everyone liked the idea.
12. Alice sang a song.
13. The dog bit the farmer.
14. He was painting the roof.
15. They were writing their exam.
16. Our team will win the first prize.
17. I am writing a story.

Answers. الحلول ( موجودة اسفل الصفحة حاول ان تحول الجمل وحدك دون الاطلاع على الحلول الجاهزة )
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1. The job has been finished by me.
2. This house was built by them in 1990.
3. A new car has been bought by him.
4. A letter was written by me.
5. The parcel was sent on Monday.
6. The thief was caught by the police yesterday.
7. A cake was baked by her.
8. A book was read by me.
9. The beggar was given a five rupee coin (by her).
10. The boy was praised by the teacher.
11. The idea was liked (by everyone).
12. A song was sung by Alice.
13. The farmer was bitten by the dog.
14. The roof was being painted by him.
15. Their exam was being written by them.
16. The first prize will be won by our team.
17. A story is being written by me.


مدونة تعلم

مدونة تعلم mourad ,,,,,

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